Embora o que me tenha levado a este texto, fosse uma busca sobre o Sandemanianismo, este artigo é interessante independente desse tema:
Two kinds of knowledge
To substantiate this point, Fuller reproduces a lengthy passage from Jonathan Edwards’ Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, which was first published in 1746. For Fuller, as we have noted, Edwards was his major theological tutor after the Word of God. ‘No man’, he once said of Edwards, ‘possessed a clearer insight into these difficult subjects’, namely, the various roles played by the understanding, the will and the affections in the matter of conversion and the Christian life.
The passage that Fuller cites is from Part III, Section 4 of the Religious Affections, in which Edwards is detailing the fourth of twelve ways or signs in which genuine Christian spirituality reveals itself. Edwards is arguing that biblical Christianity has at its core a spiritual way of knowing or understanding which encompasses both the will’s inclinations and the heart’s affections. In Edwards’ words: ‘spiritual understanding…consists in a sense of the heart, of the supreme beauty and sweetness of the holiness or moral perfection of divine things, together with all that discerning and knowledge of things of religion, that depends upon, and flows from such a sense’. Edwards then contrasts this understanding, that the Spirit imparts to all true believers, with that which is purely intellectual.
‘That sort of knowledge’, Edwards writes, ‘by which a man has a sensible perception of amiableness and loathsomeness, or of sweetness and nauseousness, is not just the same sort of knowledge with that, by which he knows what a triangle is, and what a square is. The one is mere speculative knowledge; the other sensible knowledge, in which more than the mere intellect is concerned; the heart is the proper subject of it, or the soul as a being that not only beholds, but has inclination, and is pleased or displeased. And yet there is the nature of instruction in it; as he that has perceived the sweet taste of honey, knows much more about it, than he who has only looked upon and felt of it.’
Merely intellectual knowledge, which the Sandemanians maintained was the essence of saving faith, feels no attraction or aversion to the object known. Knowledge of geometrical shapes, for example, is unaccompanied by either a relish for them or a hatred of them. Genuine knowledge of God in true Christian experience, though, is inseparable from a delight in him and a relish of his person. Such knowledge differs as much from a merely speculative knowledge as the taste of honey differs from the simple understanding that honey is sweet. The essence of true Christianity lies in genuine spiritual affections in which mind and heart, affections and understanding, are as intimately united as heat and light in a fire.
Fui eu que sublinhei as frases iniciais. Arcana Celeste, o primeiro livro teológico de Swedenborg, depois do aparecimento de Jesus, foi publicado em 1749. Enquanto que Jonathan Edwards’ Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, was first published in 1746.
No entanto, Swedenborg publicou o seu primeiro livro teológico, em 1745 !!!!!!
De cultu et amore Dei, ou The Worship and Love of God, EM LONDRES.
ALÉM DISSO, não seria impossível que o livro ou partes do livro, já circulassem em manuscritos, antes de ser publicado.
Será muito interessante investigar isto…. o que ainda não fiz.
Atrevo-me no entanto a avançar a grande probabilidade, de que J.Edwards, que tanto impressionou Fuller, — ‘No man’, he once said of Edwards, ‘possessed a clearer insight into these difficult subjects’, namely, the various roles played by the understanding, the will and the affections in the matter of conversion and the Christian life. — tivesse retirado o que escreveu, de Swedenborg.
Nada mais li de J. Edwards do que isto, e hoje é a primeira vez que vejo ou ouço o seu nome. Porém estes parágrafos, têm quanto a mim a assinatura de Swedenborg.
Além disto, há a hipótese da obra não teológica de Swedenborg, já ter talvez referências a afectos, percepção, vontade, compreensão, etc, a propósito dos seus estudos do cérebro, etc. Mas não li esses trabalhos, por enquanto. Não que estes não fossem fenómenos ou termos anteriores a Swedenborg. Mas, primeiro: mencionados todos em conjunto numas poucas de frases; segundo: juntamente com termos como “deleite, mel, fogo, calor, luz”; terceiro: e tudo isto, em contínuas comparações ?
Plagiarism.org : Learning Center : Plagiarism Definitions, Tips on avoiding Plagiarism, Guidelines for proper citation, & Help Indentifying Plagairism
Eu penso que Swedenborg deve ter sido o autor mais plagiado da História.
Swedenborg’s Rules of Life
- Often to read and meditate on the Word of God.
- To submit everthing to the will of Divine Providence.
- To observe in everything a propriety of behaviour, and to keep the conscience clear.
- To dischard with fidelity the functions of my employments, and to make myself in all things useful to society.
Pelo contrário, falta aqui tudo o que Swedenborg veio acrescentar !